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Publications using PIPER

This page summarizes papers and presentations using the PIPER Child model [C] or the PIPER software framework [S] since the end of the PIPER EU project.

Many of the studies are from authors that are not participating to the PIPER Open Source project (or the European project before that).

Please let us know about mistakes or missing material.

Papers and conference presentations

  1. Li, X., Schantz, A. von, Fahlstedt, M., and Halldin, P. (2024). Evaluating child helmet protection and testing standards: A study using PIPER child head models aged 1.5, 3, 6, and 18 years. PLOS ONE 19, e0286827. 10.1371/journal.pone.0286827. [C]
  2. Soni,A., Schilling S. and Burkhard Eickhoff (2023) Comparing Frontal Impact Responses of a Q10 CAE Dummy Model and Scaled PIPER 10-Year-Old Pediatric Human Body Model. Protection of Children in Cars – November 28-30, 2023, Munich, Germany [C]
  3. Wdowicz, D., and Ptak, M. (2023). Numerical Approaches to Pedestrian Impact Simulation with Human Body Models: A Review. Arch Computat Methods Eng 30, 4687–4709. 10.1007/s11831-023-09949-2.
  4. Klug, C., Bützer, D., Iraeus, J., John, J., Keller, A., Kowalik, M., Leo, C., Levallois, I., Putra, I.P.A., Ressi, F., et al. (2023). How much does the injury risk between average female and average male anthropometry differ? – A simulation study with open source tools for virtual crash safety assessments. Accident Analysis & Prevention 193, 107328.
  5. N Erlinger, M Schinagl, C Krebs, C Arneitz, C Klug (2023) Simulation of Blunt Abdominal Impacts caused by Handlebar Ends during Bicycle Crashes with the PIPER Child Model. IRC-23-24, Ircobi Conference 2023.
  6. Liu, S., Beillas, P., Ding, L., and Wang, X. (2023). PIPER adult comfort: an open-source full body human body model for seating comfort assessment and its validation under static loading conditions. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 11. [C, comfort]
  7. Klug, C., Ressi, F., Leo, C., Iraeus, J., John, J., Svensson, M., Keller, A., Trummler, L., Schmitt, K.-U., Levallois, I., et al. (2023). Comparison of Injury Predictors and Kinematics of Human Body Models Representing Average Female and Male Road Users in Car Crashes: The 27th International Technical Conference on The Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. The 27th ESV Conference Proceedings. [S]
  8. Correia, M.A., Corrales, M.A., McLachlin, S.D., and Cronin, D.S. (2023). Effect of muscle pre-tension and pre-impact neck posture on the kinematic response of the cervical spine in simulated low-speed rear impacts. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering 39, e3761. 10.1002/cnm.3761. [S]
  9. Slusher, G., Sarfare, S., Falciani, C., Belwadi, A., and Maheshwari, J. (2022). Analysis of 6YO pediatric human body model kinematics and kinetics to determine submarining across naturalistic seating postures. Traffic Inj Prev 23, S111–S116. 10.1080/15389588.2022.2092848. [C]
  10. Williams, B. and Maheshwari, J., “Analysis of Kinetic Metrics in Submarining vs Non-Submarining Conditions for a 6YO Pediatric Human Body Model in Frontal Impacts,” SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 11(2):205-262, 2023, [C]
  11. Forman, J., Miller, M., Perez-Rapela, D., Gepner, B., Edwards, M.A., and Jermakian, J.S. (2023). Investigation of factors influencing submarining mitigation with child booster seats. Traffic Injury Prevention 24, 75–81. [C]
  12. Liu, S., Beillas, P., Ding, L., and Wang, X. (2020). Morphing an Existing Open Source Human Body Model into a Personalized Model for Seating Discomfort Investigation. In (SAE International). [C, comfort]
  13. Bohman, K., El-Mobader, S., and Jakobsson, L. (2022). Effects of restraint parameters using PIPER 6y in reclined seating during frontal impact. Traffic Injury Prevention 23, S123–S129. 10.1080/15389588.2022.2125304.
  14. Breitfuß D, Klein C, Lancashire R, Bosma F, Pucher J, Leitgeb W (2022) Solver- and Model-Agnostic Method to Transfer Pre-Crash Occupant Kinematics to an In-Crash Occupant Model for Continuous Occupant Assessment. IRC-22-93 IRCOBI conference 2022
  15. Erlinger N., Kofler D., Heider E., Klug C. (2022) Effects of Boundary Conditions and Posture on Simulations with Human Body Models of Braking Events. IRC-22-87 IRCOBI conference 2022
  16. Corrales M.A. and Cronin D.S. (2022) An Assessment of Soft Tissue Mesh Quality Contribution to Finite Element Motion Segment Model Response in the Context of Morphed Models. IRC-22-52 IRCOBI conference 2022
  17. Maier S, Kempter F, Kronwitter S, Fehr J (2022) Positioning and Simulation of Human Body Models on a Motorcycle with a Novel Restraint System. IRC-22-22 IRCOBI conference 2022
  18. Corrales, M. A., Bolte, J., Malcolm, S., Pipkorn, B., & Cronin, D. S. (2022). Methodology to geometrically age human body models to average and subject-specific anthropometrics, demonstrated using a small stature female model assessed in a side impact. Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering, 1–12.
  19. Peng, Y., Zhang, M., Yan, S., Li, X., Yang, J., Fan, G., and Li, L. (2022). Evaluation of parental education using biomechanical visualization to increase child restraint use in China. Accident Analysis & Prevention 169, 106633. [S,C]
  20. Grébonval, C., Trosseille, X., Petit, P., Wang, X., & Beillas, P. (2021). Effects of seat pan and pelvis angles on the occupant response in a reclined position during a frontal crash. PLOS ONE, 16(9), e0257292. [S]
  21. Corrales MA & Cronin DS. (2021). Sex, Age and Stature Affects Neck Biomechanical Responses in Frontal and Rear Impacts Assessed Using Finite Element Head and Neck Models. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, [S]
  22. Corrales MA, Malcom S, & Cronin DS. (2021). “Human Body Model Thorax Morphing Method Based on Internal Landmarks Demonstrated with an Average 75-Year-Old Small Stature Female Model.” International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury. IRCOBI. Munich, Germany. [S]
  23. Miller M, Perez-Rapela D, Gepner B, Edwards M, Jermakian J, Forman J (2021) A Methodology for Large-Scale Parametric Evaluation of Child Booster Seats. IRC-21-62 IRCOBI conference 2021 [C]
  24. Kempter F, Fehr J (2021) Muscular Posture-Adaption Approach Maintaining Ligamentous Stresses and Strains. IRC-21-69 IRCOBI conference 2021
  25. Klein C, González-García M, Weber J, Bosma F, Lancashire R, Breitfuss D, Kirschbichler S, Leitgeb W. (2021) A Method for Reproducible Landmark-based Positioning of Multibody and Finite Element Human Models. IRC-21-53 IRCOBI conference 2021. [S]
  26. Smit S, Trauner-Karner J, Nader M, Kofler D, Erlinger N, Feist F, Klug C (2021) Investigation of injury mechanisms in sledging accidents involving children and adults. IRC-21-64. Ircobi Conference 2021.
  27. Janák, TomáŠ, Yoann Lafon, Philippe Petit, and Philippe Beillas (2020). “A Method to Use Kriging with Large Sets of Control Points to Morph Finite Element Models of the Human Body.” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, September.
  28. M. Darweesh, M. A. Corrales, P. A. Cripton, and D. S. Cronin (2020) The Influence of Neck Posture on Cervical Spine Response During Head-First Impact Using a Human Body Model. IRC-20-35 IRCOBI conference 2020 [S]
  29. F. Germanetti, D. Fiumarella, F. Cappellino, R. Puppini, G. Belingardi, A. Scattina (2020) Effects of non-conventional driving posture on the passive safety of autonomous vehicles. A numerical study using the THUMS human model. IRC-20-54 IRCOBI conference 2020 [S]
  30. Corrales MA & Cronin DS. (2020). “Neck Response of Young and Aged Small Stature Female Human Body Models in Rear Impact.” International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury. IRCOBI. Munich, Germany. [S]
  31. Bohman, Katarina, Jonas Östh, Lotta Jakobsson, Isabelle Stockman, Maria Wimmerstedt, and Helena Wallin. (2020). “Booster Cushion Design Effects on Child Occupant Kinematics and Loading Assessed Using the PIPER 6-Year-Old HBM and the Q10 ATD in Frontal Impacts.” Traffic Injury Prevention, August, 1–6. [C]
  32. Christoph Leo, Michael Gruber, Florian Feist, Wolfgang Sinz, Franz Roth, Corina Klug (2020) The Effect of Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems on Head Impact Conditions for Pedestrian and Cyclists in Passenger Car Collisions. IRC-20-49 IRCOBI conference 2020 [C]
  33. Chevalier, Marie-Christine, and Philippe Beillas. (2020) Effect of Anthropometry Scaling on the Response of the Piper Child Scalable Human Body Model Subject to Pelvic Impact. Journal of Biomechanics 105 (May): 109757. [C][S]
  34. Grébonval, C., X. Trosseille, P. Petit, X. Wang, and P. Beillas. (2020) The Effects of Small Seat Swiveling Angles on Occupant Responses during a Frontal Impact. WCX World Congress Experience. SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0571. [S]
  35. Liu, S., P. Beillas, L. Ding, and X. Wang. (2020). “Morphing an Existing Open Source Human Body Model into a Personalized Model for Seating Discomfort Investigation.” WCX World Congress Experience. SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0874. [C][S]
  36. Bohman K, Jakobsson L, Wimmerstedt M, Wallin H, Wass J, Östh J, (2019) The influence of booster cushion design on dummy kinematics and loading, using the PIPER model and the Q10 in frontal impacts. Protection of Children in Cars Conference. Dec. [C]
  37. Johannes Holtz, Gerd Müller, Steffen Müller, Stefanie Marker (2019) Analysis of sensors in the PIPER child human body model based on Q6 dummy sensors for multidirectional occupant load cases. Protection of Children in Cars Conference. Dec. [C]
  38. Miguel A. Corrales, Duane S. Cronin (2019) Effect of Aged Neck Posture on Kinematics and Tissue-Level Response in Frontal Impact Conditions IRC-19-48 Short com IRCOBI conference 2019 [S]
  39. Corrales MA, & Cronin DS. (2019). A Repositioning Methodology to Achieve Targeted Bone Positions in Detailed Human Body Models, Applied to the GHBMC Small Stature Female. GHBMC Workshop, Michigan. (1st Best Presentation Award) [S]
  40. Daniel Perez-Rapela, Craig Markusic, Bryant Whitcomb, Bengt Pipkorn, Jason L. Forman, Jeff R. Crandall. (2019) Comparison of the simplified GHBMC to PMHS kinematics in far-side impact IRC-19-42 IRCOBI conference 2019 [S]
  41. Grébonval et al. (2019) Occupant response in frontal crash, after alterations of the standard driving position. IRC-19-57 Short communication. IRCOBI conference 2019 [S]
  42. Madelen Fahlstedt, Peter Halldin (2019) The Difference in Ranking of Bike Helmets when Using Different Finite Element Head Models. IRC-19-98 IRCOBI conference 2019. [PIPER SCALED 18 y.o.] [C]
  43. Belwadi, Aditya, Shreyas Sarfare, Sophie Tushak, Jalal Maheshwari, and Srihari Menon. 2019. “Responses of the Scaled Pediatric Human Body Model in the Rear- and Forward-Facing Child Seats in Simulated Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.” Traffic Injury Prevention 20 (sup2): S143–44. [C][S]
  44. Tushak S, Maheshwar J, Belwadi A (2019). Responses of the Scaled Infant Human Body Model in Simulated Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes. ESV 2019: Paper No.19-0142-O [C][S]
  45. Fahlstedt M, Kleiven S, Li X. Current playground surface test standards underestimate brain injury risk for children. Journal of biomechanics. 2019 May 24;89:1-0. [C]
  46. Li X, Kleiven S. Improved safety standards are needed to better protect younger children at playgrounds. Scientific reports. 2018 Oct 10;8(1):15061. [C]
  47. Belwadi A, Maheshwari J., Sarfare S. (2018) Biomechanical Responses of Pediatric Occupants in Non-standard Seating Positions - A Pilot Study Utilizing Human Body Models. NHTSA Workshop 2018 [C][S]
  48. Weinert et al. (2018) Comfort analysis of a child restraint system using human body model. Conf. Protection of Children in Cars. Munich. [C]
  49. Sarfare S, Maheshwari J, Duong N, Belwadi A. Comparative Responses of the PIPER 6YO Human Body Model and the Q6 ATD for Simulated Frontal and Lateral Impacts. SAE Technical Paper; 2018 Nov 12. [C]
  50. Maheshwari J, Duong N, Sarfare S, Belwadi A. Evaluating the response of the PIPER scalable human body model across child restraining seats in simulated frontal crashes. Traffic injury prevention. 2018 Dec 28;19(sup2):S140-2. [C]
  51. Piqueras-Lorente et al (2018) Kinematic Assessment of Subject Personification of Human Body Models (THUMS). IRC-18-31 IRCOBI conference 2018 [S]
  52. Kleinbach et al. (2018) Simulation of Average Female Rear-End Volunteer Tests using the Active ViVA OpenHBM. IRC-18-34 IRCOBI conference 2018 [S]
  53. Peres J (2019). A Pedestrian Version of the Piper 6 Year Old Child Model. IRCOBI conference 2018 [C]
  54. Corrales MA, & Cronin DS. (2018). Human Body Model Cervical Spine Curvature Effect in Extracted Motion Segment Model in Tension, Extension, and Flexion. The Injury Biomechanics Symposium, Ohio 2018. [S]
  55. Beillas P, Le Ruyet A, Chevalier M-C (2017). Side impact applications of the PIPER scalable child human body model. 15th International Conference on the Protection of Children in Cars, Dec 2017, MUNICH, Germany. 11 p. ⟨hal-01720419⟩ [C][S]
  56. Alvarez VS, Kleiven S. Effect of pediatric growth on cervical spine kinematics and deformations in automotive crashes. Journal of biomechanics. 2018 Apr 11;71:76-83. [C]
  57. Giordano C, Li X, Kleiven S. Performances of the PIPER scalable child human body model in accident reconstruction. PLoS one. 2017 Nov 14;12(11):e0187916. [C][S]
  58. Beillas et al. (2017) Applications of the GHBMC models using the PIPER tools. GHBMC Users’ Workshop, June 4, 2017 [S]
  59. Beillas P, Giordano C, Alvarez V, Li X, Ying X, Chevalier MC, Kirscht S, Kleiven S. Development and performance of the PIPER scalable child human body models. In14th International Conference on the Protection of Children in Cars 2016 Dec 8. [C][S] [ END OF PIPER EU ]


  1. Bernocco, V. (2023). Abusive Head Trauma: finite element analysis of shaking and impact inflicted to a PIPER child body model. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Ingegneria Biomedica
  2. Corrales MA (2021). “Development of Elderly Posture Male and Female Finite Element Neck Models and Assessment of Tissue-Level Response Under Impact Loading.” University of Waterloo. Master of Applied Science Thesis.
  3. Janák T. (2020). Personalization of human body models to simulate obese occupants in automotive safety. PhD Thesis in Mechanical Engineering. University Lyon 1, France.
  4. Lackner C. (2020) Parameter Study on pedestrian impacts onto a Light Rail Vehicle. Ing Diploma Thesis. TU Wien.
  5. Daouacher M (2019). Evaluation of occupant kinematics in crash using the PIPER model: in frontal and oblique crash simulations. Master thesis at Karlstad University.
  6. Seinunn jóhannsdóttir (2019). Evaluation of Head and Neck Injuries when Misuses of Child Restraint Systems Occur: Simulations of car accidents performed with PIPER child model. Master thesis at KTH.
  7. Berntsson J (2018). A Parametric Study of Shoulder Belt Interactions with the PIPER Scalable Child Human Body Model in Frontal and Frontal Offset Impacts. Master thesis at Chalmers University of Technology.
  8. Pezzutti S (2018). Age–Related Perspectives on the Biomechanics of Traumatic Injury. Master thesis at KTH.
  9. Mohd Zaifullizan Y. (2018) Finite Element Modelling: Comparing Mechanical Response between a Personalised Model and a Scaled-Down Model of Paediatric Femurs. Master thesis at Sheffield Univ
  10. Alvarez VS (2017). Understanding Boundary Conditions for Brain Injury Prediction: Finite Element Analysis of Vulnerable Road Users. PhD thesis at KTH.

Workshops / Invited Talks/sessions

  1. Experiences from the open-access approaches in our field. VIRTUAL/OSCCAR IRCOBI 2019 Pre-conference Workshop. (Speaker: Philippe Beillas)
  2. HBM Repositioning (2018). IRCOBI 2018 Pre-conference Workshop. (Speaker: Philippe Beillas)
  3. PIPER Open Source framework for Human Body Models: status and perspectives. VDI/Human Body Modelling in Automotive Safety Berlin, November 28-29, 2017. Session including overview and short presentations (LAB/Pedestrian, KTH accident reco, LMU Landmarks, Ifsttar Obese). (Various speakers)
publications.txt · Last modified: 2024/03/26 18:56 (external edit)